Dilantin functions by prolonging the inactivation of sodium channels in neuronal membranes, hence stabilizing the threshold against excitability triggered by excessive stimulation. By modifying the conductance among sodium channels, phenytoin prevents the spread of disruptive electrical charges in the brain which causes seizures. It’s essential for managing a stable level of Dilantin as its therapeutic window is narrow, and both underdose and overdose can cause issues.

This medication is crucial for individuals who suffer from epileptic conditions, offering a chance at normalcy by controlling seizures. It’s also sometimes used for treating trigeminal neuralgia and preventing seizures during or after neurosurgery.

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Dilantin, containing the active ingredient phenytoin, is an anticonvulsant medication used to control seizures. Specifically utilized for the prevention and management of tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures and complex partial seizures, Dilantin works by slowing down impulses in the brain that cause seizures. Phenytoin, classified as a hydantoin derivative, stabilizes the threshold against hyperexcitability caused by excessive stimulation or environmental changes capable of reducing the membrane sodium gradient.

Additional information


Indications: Dilantin is indicated for the treatment of:

● Tonic-clonic (grand mal) seizures
● Complex partial seizures
● Prevention of seizures during or after neurosurgery
● Management of trigeminal neuralgia, as a secondary use

To utilize Dilantin effectively, patients should:

● Take Dilantin exactly as prescribed by the healthcare provider.
● Regularly monitor blood levels of phenytoin to stay within the therapeutic range.
● Never skip doses, as it can increase the risk of seizures.

Side Effects

● Nausea
● Vomiting
● Dizziness or drowsiness
● Uncontrolled eye movements

Serious side effects that require immediate medical attention include:

● Signs of allergic reactions (rash, itching/swelling, severe dizziness, trouble breathing)
● Liver dysfunction (yellowing eyes or skin, dark urine, severe nausea, vomiting)
● Blood disorders (sore throat, fever, easy bruising/bleeding)
● Severe skin reactions


Dilantin should be stored at room temperature, away from light and moisture. Keep the container tightly closed when not in use, and ensure it is out of reach of children and pets.

Special Precautions

Before using Dilantin, inform your healthcare provider if you have:

● A history of liver disease
● A history of diabetes
● A history of vitamin D deficiency or bone disease
● Any allergies, especially to anticonvulsants
● Alcohol use

Patients are advised to avoid alcohol and to be cautious with tasks requiring alertness since Dilantin can cause dizziness and drowsiness. Dental hygiene is important as phenytoin can cause gum disease.

Pregnant and breastfeeding women should discuss the potential risks and benefits of using Dilantin, as it can harm an unborn baby or pass through breast milk.


Symptoms of Dilantin overdose may include severe drowsiness, uncontrolled eye movements, tremors, slurred speech, loss of consciousness, or respiratory depression. An overdose of phenytoin can be potentially fatal, requiring immediate medical attention. It's crucial to adhere to prescribed dosages.

Dilantin offers individuals with seizure disorders an opportunity to manage their condition effectively. Continuous monitoring and consultation with healthcare providers are essential to ensure the safe and effective use of this medication.


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